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Risk Factor:
Risk Factor Type: Behavior, Metabolic
Current Understanding:
The tables below present a number of studies whose results, taken collectively, provide evidence suggesting that obesity may be associated with AD and total dementia. Many studies indicate that midlife obesity is associated with elevated risk of AD and dementia. Studies of adiposity in late-life, however, have found an inverse association, with higher risk for AD and dementia in underweight individuals and a reduced risk in obese participants. Much or all of the latter association could be explained by reverse causation, complex survival issues, and limitations in exposure measures. These results are consistent with results from related studies on adiposity and cognitive decline and from neuroimaging studies. However, it is still unclear whether there is a critical age at which obesity has a stronger influence on the development of AD and dementia, and whether the association is with overall adiposity or central adiposity. Thus, studies with longer follow-up times that include measures of both types of adiposity are needed to better understand this association. Despite these uncertainties, however, the association of obesity with AD and dementia provides an additional reason to maintain a healthy weight throughout life. For a more detailed interpretation of study findings and putative mechanisms, please view the Discussion.
Literature Extraction: Search strategy  * New *
Last Search Completed: 08 September 2012 - Last content updated on 19 Nov 2012.


Table 1:   Body mass index (BMI) - categorical
Notes These reports examine the relationship between BMI measured as a categorical variable and incident Alzheimer Disease and Total Dementia. Some studies evaluated the association between mid-life BMI and AD, others between late-life BMI and AD, and others both associations. Some reports adjusted for multiple sets of covariates. In these instances, the results obtained from adjusting for separate sets of covariates are provided in separate rows.  
  Alzheimer Disease Total Dementia  
Paper Cohort Study Type # Subjects
(% Female)
Average Follow-up Time Exposure Distribution
# of Cases Effect Size 95% CI P-value # of Cases Effect Size 95% CI P-value Ethnicity Age at Start of Follow-up:
Mean (SD)
(Range)
Diagnostic Assessment Covariates & Analysis Comment Paper
Atti, 2008 Kungsholmen Project Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 1255
(74%)
9.0 y
<20 kg/m2: 14%
20-24.9 kg/m2: 54%
≥25 kg/m2: 32%
(detail)
-
-
-
-
1.00
0.66
-
Ref.
0.50-0.88
-
Ref.
0.004
*
49
205
102
Total: 356
0.97
1.00
0.75
0.71-1.34
Ref.
0.59-0.96
*
0.85
Ref.
0.02
*
Swedish
(detail)
81 (4)
(75 - )
Screening: "Modified" 3MSE, DSM-III-R critera for "clinically definite dementia"

AD Diagnosis: Neuropsychological examination
(detail)
A, E, G, ADLI, APOE4, CBVD, CDUB, CPD, CHD, DEP, DMठAtti, 2008
Beydoun, 2008 BLSA Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 1474
(0%)
23 y
At age 30, men
< 18.6 kg/m2:         
18.6-24.9 kg/m2:         
25.0-29.9 kg/m2:         
≥30 kg/m2:         
(detail)

-
-
-
-
Total: 116

6.05
1.00
1.17
0.70

2.14-17.09
Ref.
0.78-1.75
0.25-1.96

0.001
Ref.
0.44
0.5

 
 
 
 

 

 

 
Caucasian, Other, African-American (Black)
30 (-)
(30 - 30)
(detail)
AD Diagnosis: NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G, RE, SM, YOB‡
(detail)
Beydoun, 2008
Beydoun, 2008 BLSA Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 1474
(0%)
23 y
At age 50, men
< 18.6 kg/m2:         
18.6-24.9 kg/m2:         
25-29.9 kg/m2:         
≥30 kg/m2:         
(detail)

-
-
-
-
Total: 116

-
1.00
0.94
0.52

-
Ref.
0.64-1.38
0.13-2.17

-
Ref.
0.75
0.37

 
 
 
 

 

 

 
Caucasian, Other, African-American (Black)
30 (-)
(30 - 30)
(detail)
AD Diagnosis: NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G, RE, SM, YOB‡
(detail)
Beydoun, 2008
Beydoun, 2008 BLSA Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 848
(100%)
23 y
At age 30, women
< 18.6 kg/m2:         
18.6-24.9 kg/m2:         
25.0-29.9 kg/m2:         
≥30 kg/m2:         
(detail)

-
-
-
-
Total: 71

0.67
1.00
1.17
2.44

0.23-1.89
Ref.
0.59-2.33
0.85-7.00

0.45
Ref.
0.66
0.1

 
 
 
 

 

 

 
Caucasian, Other, African-American (Black)
30 (-)
(30 - 30)
(detail)
AD Diagnosis: NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G, RE, SM, YOB‡
(detail)
Beydoun, 2008
Beydoun, 2008 BLSA Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 848
(100%)
23 y
At age 50, women
< 18.6 kg/m2:         
18.6-24.9 kg/m2:         
25-29.9 kg/m2:         
≥30 kg/m2:         
(detail)

-
-
-
-
Total: 71

2.96
1.00
1.11
2.43

0.68-12.80
Ref.
0.61-2.04
0.84-7.02

0.15
Ref.
0.73
0.1

 
 
 
 

 

 

 
Caucasian, Other, African-American (Black)
30 (-)
(30 - 30)
(detail)
AD Diagnosis: NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G, RE, SM, YOB‡
(detail)
Beydoun, 2008
Chiang, 2007 MRMD & CSP Combo Nested case control study with cumulative incidence sampling reporting odds ratios (ORs) 783
(41%)
-
(detail)
<20.5 kg/m2: 24%
20.5-22.9 kg/m2: 26%
23-25.4 kg/m2: 26%
≥25.5 kg/m2: 24%
(detail)
16
14
19
24
Total: 73
1.30
1.00
1.75
2.33
0.54-3.12
Ref.
0.78-3.93
1.06-5.10
0.56
Ref.
0.18
0.04
*
38
27
44
48
Total: 157
1.84
1.00
1.87
2.44
1.02-3.33
Ref.
1.08-3.23
1.39-4.28
0.04
Ref.
0.03
0.002
*
Chinese
(detail)
58 (7)
(30 - )
(detail)
Screening: Other

AD Diagnosis: DSM IV
(detail)
A, G, CBVD, HTN, RES, TEN‡
(detail)
Chiang, 2007
Chiang, 2007 MRMD & CSP Combo Nested case control study with cumulative incidence sampling reporting odds ratios (ORs) 783
(41%)
-
(detail)
BMI, smokers only
<20.5 kg/m2:         
20.5-22.9 kg/m2:         
23-25.4 kg/m2:         
≥25.5 kg/m2:         
(detail)

7
4
4
9
Total: 24

1.39
1.00†
1.81†
5.47

0.26-7.39
Ref.
0.42-7.84
1.32-22.70

0.7
Ref.
0.43
0.02
*

-
-
-
-

-
1.00
-
-

-
Ref.
-
-

-
Ref.
-
-
Chinese
(detail)
58 (7)
(30 - )
(detail)
Screening: Other

AD Diagnosis: DSM IV
(detail)
A, G, CBVD, HTN, RES, TEN‡
(detail)
Chiang, 2007
Chiang, 2007 MRMD & CSP Combo Nested case control study with cumulative incidence sampling reporting odds ratios (ORs) 785
(41%)
-
(detail)
BMI, non-smokers only
<20.5 kg/m2:         
20.5-22.9 kg/m2:         
23-25.4 kg/m2:         
≥25.5 kg/m2:         
(detail)

9
10
14
15
Total: 48

0.67
1.00
1.32
1.30

0.22-2.02
Ref.
0.47-3.76
0.49-3.44

0.48
Ref.
0.6
0.6
*

-
-
-
-

-
1.00
-
-

-
Ref.
-
-

-
Ref.
-
-
Chinese
(detail)
58 (7)
(30 - )
(detail)
Screening: Other

AD Diagnosis: DSM IV
(detail)
A, G, CBVD, HTN, RES, TEN‡
(detail)
Chiang, 2007
Fitzpatrick, 2009 CHCS Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 2708
(59%)
5.4 y
At age 50
<20 kg/m2: 3%
20-25 kg/m2: 47%
26-29 kg/m2: 40%
≥30 kg/m2: 10%
(detail)

11
103
96
26
Total: 236

1.46
1.00
1.12
1.17

0.78-2.73
Ref.
0.84-1.48
0.75-1.81

0.24
Ref.
0.43
0.49
*

15
200
188
58
Total: 461

1.09
1.00
1.10
1.39

0.64-1.85
Ref.
0.90-1.35
1.03-1.87

0.75
Ref.
0.36
0.03
*
Caucasian, African-American (Black)
75 (5)
(65 - )
(detail)
Screening: "Modified" 3MSE, BVRT, IQ-CODE, TICS, TMT

AD Diagnosis: Brain Imaging, Medical History, NINCDS ADRDA, Neuropsychological examination, WHO Stroke
(detail)
A, E, G, RE‡ Fitzpatrick, 2009
Fitzpatrick, 2009 CHCS Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 2793
(59%)
5.4 y
BMI, late-life
<20 kg/m2: 4%
20-25 kg/m2: 33%
26-29 kg/m2: 43%
≥30 kg/m2: 20%
(detail)

17
94
93
41
Total: 245

1.53
1.00
0.76
0.70

0.91-2.58
Ref.
0.57-1.02
0.48-1.03

0.11
Ref.
0.07
0.07
*

31
168
203
78
Total: 480

1.62
1.00
0.93
0.81

1.10-2.39
Ref.
0.76-1.15
0.61-1.07

0.02
Ref.
0.49
0.14
*
Caucasian, African-American (Black)
75 (5)
(65 - )
(detail)
Screening: "Modified" 3MSE, BVRT, IQ-CODE, TICS, TMT

AD Diagnosis: Brain Imaging, Medical History, NINCDS ADRDA, Neuropsychological examination, WHO Stroke
(detail)
A, E, G, RE‡ Fitzpatrick, 2009
Gelber, 2012 HAAS Nested case control study with cumulative incidence sampling reporting odds ratios (ORs) 3468
(0%)
-
15.5-22.6 kg/m2: 34%
>22.6-25 kg/m2: 33%
>25-39.9 kg/m2: 33%
(detail)
42
38
37
Total: 117
1.00
1.57
1.51
Ref.
0.95-2.59
0.90-2.54
Ref.
0.08
0.12
*
67
76
80
Total: 223
1.00
1.82
1.87
Ref.
1.24-2.67
1.26-2.77
Ref.
0.002
0.002
*
Japanese-American
52 (-)
( - )
Screening: CASI, DSM-III-R critera for "clinically definite dementia", 3MSE

AD Diagnosis: Brain Imaging, NINCDS ADRDA, Neurologic examination, Neuropsychological examination
(detail)
A, E, APOE4, CVD, CYJPN, DM, HC, HXHTN, OS‡ Gelber, 2012
Hassings, 2009 OCTO-TWIN Cohort study reporting odds ratios (ORs) 1152
(69%)
40 y
<26.5 kg/m2: 75%
≥26.5 kg/m2: 25%
(detail)
-
-
Total: 181
1.00
1.71
Ref.
1.24-2.35
Ref.
0.001
*
-
-
Total: 312
1.00
1.59
Ref.
1.21-2.07
Ref.
0.0007
*
Swedish
(detail)
- (-)
(45 - 65)
Screening: DSM-III-R critera for "clinically definite dementia"

AD Diagnosis: NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G, ALC, SM‡
(detail)
Hassings, 2009
Hayden, 2006 Cache County Study Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 3264
(58%)
3.2 y
(detail)
<30 kg/m2: 81%
≥30 kg/m2: 19%
(detail)
-
-
Total: 104
1.00
1.93
Ref.
1.05-3.36
Ref.
0.03
*
-
-
Total: 141
1.00
1.76
Ref.
1.03-2.88
Ref.
0.03
*
Caucasian
(detail)
74 (6)
(65 - )
(detail)
Screening: DQ, IQ-CODE, 3MSE

AD Diagnosis: DSM IIIR, NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G, APOE4, CABG, DM, HC, HTN, MI, SH‡
(detail)
Hayden, 2006
Hayden, 2006 Cache County Study Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 1371
(0%)
3.2 y
(detail)
BMI, men only
<30 kg/m2:         
≥30 kg/m2:         
(detail)

-
-
Total: 28

1.00
1.48

Ref.
0.41-4.18

Ref.
0.51
*

-
-
Total: 41

1.00
-

Ref.
-

Ref.
-
Caucasian
(detail)
74 (6)
(65 - )
(detail)
Screening: DQ, IQ-CODE, 3MSE

AD Diagnosis: DSM IIIR, NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G, APOE4, CABG, DM, HC, HTN, MI, SH‡ Hayden, 2006
Hayden, 2006 Cache County Study Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 1893
(100%)
3.2 y
(detail)
BMI, women only
<30 kg/m2:         
≥30 kg/m2:         
(detail)

-
-
Total: 76

1.00
2.23

Ref.
1.09-4.30

Ref.
0.02
*

-
-
Total: 100

1.00
-

Ref.
-

Ref.
-
Caucasian
(detail)
74 (6)
(65 - )
(detail)
Screening: DQ, IQ-CODE, 3MSE

AD Diagnosis: DSM IIIR, NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G, APOE4, CABG, DM, HC, HTN, MI, SH‡ Hayden, 2006
Kivipelto, 2005 NKP-FINMONICA-CAIDE Cumulative incidence study reporting odds ratios (ORs) 1449
(62%)
-
(detail)
<25 kg/m2: 35%
25-30 kg/m2: 49%
≥31 kg/m2: 16%
(detail)
12
21
15
Total: 48
1.00
-
-
Ref.
-
-
Ref.
-
-
14
26
21
Total: 61
1.00
0.99
1.88
Ref.
0.47-2.15
0.76-4.63
Ref.
0.98
0.17
*
Caucasian
(detail)
51 (6)
( - )
(detail)
Screening: MMSE

AD Diagnosis: NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G, APOE4, DM, DBP, FUT, MI, SM, SH, SBP, TC‡ Kivipelto, 2005
Kivipelto, 2005 NKP-FINMONICA-CAIDE Cumulative incidence study reporting odds ratios (ORs) 1449
(62%)
-
(detail)
<31 kg/m2: 84%
≥31 kg/m2: 16%
(detail)
33
15
Total: 48
1.00
1.77
Ref.
0.90-3.47
Ref.
0.1
*
40
21
Total: 61
1.00
2.09
Ref.
1.16-3.77
Ref.
0.01
*
Caucasian
(detail)
51 (6)
(65 - 79)
(detail)
Screening: MMSE, Other

AD Diagnosis: NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G, FUT, SBP, TCठKivipelto, 2005
Luchsinger, 2007 WHICAP Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 893
(70%)
5.1 y
<23.4 kg/m2: 25%
23.4-26.2 kg/m2: 25%
26.3-29.6 kg/m2: 25%
≥30 kg/m2: 25%
(detail)
30
35
19
28
Total: 112
1.00
0.90
0.50
0.90
Ref.
0.50-1.40
0.30-0.90
0.50-1.80
Ref.
0.69
0.01
0.75
*
53
48
38
42
Total: 181
1.00
0.70
0.60
0.80
Ref.
0.50-1.00
0.40-0.90
0.50-1.20
Ref.
0.04
0.01
0.32
*
Caucasian, Hispanic, African-American (Black)
77 (6)
(65 - )
(detail)
AD Diagnosis: CDR, DSM IV, NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G, APOE4, RE‡
(detail)
Luchsinger, 2007
Luchsinger, 2012 WHICAP   1431
(67%)
4.0 y
*
Quartile 1: 25%
Quartile 2: 25%
Quartile 3: 25%
Quartile 4: 25%
(detail)
49
27
31
33
Total: 140
1.00
0.40
0.70
0.60
Ref.
0.20-0.70
0.40-1.20
0.30-1.10
Ref.
0.004
0.2
0.1
*
 
 
 
 
      Caucasian, Hispanic, African-American (Black)
76 (6)
(65 - )
(detail)
AD Diagnosis: NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G, APOE4, RE‡ Luchsinger, 2012
Ronnemaa, 2011 ULSAM Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 1221
(0%)
13 y
BMI, late-life
< 28.1 kg/m2:         
≥28.1 kg/m2:         
(detail)

-
-
Total: 106

1.00
0.90

Ref.
0.80-1.10

Ref.
0.2
*

-
-
Total: 246

1.00
1.10

Ref.
0.90-1.40

Ref.
1.0
*
Swedish
(detail)
70 (-)
(70 - 70)
(detail)
AD Diagnosis: Brain Imaging, DSM IV, NINCDS ADRDA, Other
(detail)
A, E‡ Ronnemaa, 2011
Ronnemaa, 2011 ULSAM Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 2268
(0%)
29 y
BMI, mid-life
< 28.1 kg/m2:         
≥28.1 kg/m2:         
(detail)

-
-
Total: 127

1.00
1.10

Ref.
0.90-1.30

Ref.
0.31
*

-
-
Total: 349

1.00
1.10

Ref.
1.00-1.20

Ref.
0.04
*
Swedish
(detail)
50 (-)
(50 - 50)
(detail)
AD Diagnosis: Brain Imaging, DSM IV, NINCDS ADRDA, Other
(detail)
A, E‡ Ronnemaa, 2011
Whitmer, 2007 KPNC Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 10136
(55%)
-
<18.5 kg/m2: 1%
18.5-24.9 kg/m2: 55%
25-29 kg/m2: 35%
≥30 kg/m2: 9%
(detail)
8
247
180
42
Total: 477
1.55
1.00
1.27
1.39
0.77-3.13
Ref.
1.04-1.54
1.00-1.94
0.22
Ref.
0.02
0.05
*
 
 
 
 
      Caucasian, Other, African-American (Black)
(detail)
- (-)
(40 - 45)
(detail)
Screening: Other

AD Diagnosis: Medical History
(detail)
A, E‡ Whitmer, 2007
Whitmer, 2007 KPNC Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 4600
(0%)
-
BMI, men only
<18.5 kg/m2: 1%
18.5-24.9 kg/m2: 44%
25-29 kg/m2: 48%
≥30 kg/m2: 8%
(detail)

-
-
-
-

0.75
1.00
1.79
2.60

0.10-5.46
Ref.
1.26-2.40
1.44-4.69

0.78
Ref.
0.004
0.002
*

 
 
 
 

 

 

 
Caucasian, Other, African-American (Black)
(detail)
- (-)
(40 - 45)
(detail)
Screening: Other

AD Diagnosis: Medical History
(detail)
A, E, G, AM, DM, HC, HTN, IHD, MS, RE, SM, SH‡ Whitmer, 2007
Whitmer, 2007 KPNC Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 5536
(100%)
-
BMI, women only
<18.5 kg/m2: 2%
18.5-24.9 kg/m2: 65%
25-29 kg/m2: 24%
≥30 kg/m2: 9%
(detail)

-
-
-
-

1.18
1.00
2.45
3.38

0.52-2.67
Ref.
1.83-3.26
2.20-5.19

0.69
Ref.
< 0.0001
< 0.0001
*

 
 
 
 

 

 

 
Caucasian, Other, African-American (Black)
(detail)
- (-)
(40 - 45)
(detail)
Screening: Other

AD Diagnosis: Medical History
(detail)
A, E, G, AM, DM, HC, HTN, IHD, MS, RE, SM, SH‡ Whitmer, 2007
Xu, 2011 HARMONY Cohort study reporting odds ratios (ORs) 8534
(58%)
-
<20 kg/m2: 7%
20-25 kg/m2: 63%
25-30 kg/m2: 27%
>30 kg/m2: 3%
(detail)
8
120
90
14
Total: 232
0.89
1.00
1.41
2.87
0.64-1.23
Ref.
1.05-1.89
1.57-5.26
0.48
Ref.
0.02
0.0006
*
17
240
177
30
Total: 464
0.74
1.00
1.37
3.01
0.44-1.25
Ref.
1.11-1.70
1.95-4.64
0.26
Ref.
0.004
< 0.0001
*
Swedish
(detail)
43 (-)
( - )
Screening: BDRS, TELE

AD Diagnosis: CERAD, DSM IV, MMSE, NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G‡
(detail)
Xu, 2011
† Five or fewer cases exist.
‡ Covariates: "A" (age), "E" (education), "G" (gender), "ADLI" (activities of daily living impairment), "AM" (age in midlife), "ALC" (alcohol intake), "APOE4" (APOE e4 genotype), "CVD" (cardiovascular disease), "CBVD" (cerebrovascular disease), "CYJPN" (childhood years spent in Japan), "CDUB" (chronic disease up to baseline), "CPD" (chronic pulmonary disease), "CABG" (coronary artery bypass graft), "CHD" (coronary heart disease), "DEP" (depression), "DM" (diabetes mellitus), "DBP" (diastolic blood pressure), "FUT" (follow up time), "HC" (high cholesterol), "HXHTN" (history of hypertension), "HTN" (hypertension), "IHD" (ischemic heart disease), "MS" (marital status), "MI" (mycardial infarction history), "OS" (Occupational status), "RE" (race/ethnicity), "RES" (residential township), "SM" (smoking status), "SH" (stroke history), "SBP" (systolic blood pressure), "TEN" (time of enrollment), "TC" (total cholesterol), "YOB" (year of birth)
§ Covariates for total dementia are different.
 
Table 2:   Body mass index (BMI) - continuous, per 1-kg/m2 increment in BMI
Notes These studies examine the association between BMI measured as a continuous variable and incident AD and TD. All reported results reflect the effect estimates for a 1kg/m2 increment in BMI. The table contains studies which measured BMI in mid-life as well as those that measured BMI in late-life.  
  Alzheimer Disease Total Dementia  
Paper Cohort Study Type # Subjects
(% Female)
Average Follow-up Time kg/m2
Mean (SD)
(Range)
# of Cases Effect Size 95% CI P-value # of Cases Effect Size 95% CI P-value Ethnicity Age at Start of Follow-up:
Mean (SD)
(Range)
Diagnostic Assessment Covariates & Analysis Comment Paper
Buchman, 2005 ROS Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 832
(68%)
5.5 y
27.4 (5)
( - )
(detail)
151 0.94 0.91-0.98 0.004
*
        Caucasian, Other
75 (-)
( - )
AD Diagnosis: NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G‡ Buchman, 2005
Fitzpatrick, 2009 CHCS Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 2798
(59%)
5.4 y
At age 50
- (-)
( - )
(detail)

236

0.99

0.96-1.03

0.58
*

461

1.02

0.99-1.05

0.19
*
Caucasian, African-American (Black)
75 (5)
(65 - )
(detail)
Screening: MMSE, TICS

AD Diagnosis: Brain Imaging, NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G, RE‡ Fitzpatrick, 2009
Fitzpatrick, 2009 CHCS Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 2798
(59%)
5.4 y
BMI, late-life
- (-)
( - )
(detail)

245

0.96

0.93-0.99

0.01
*

480

0.97

0.95-0.99

0.004
*
Caucasian, African-American (Black)
75 (5)
(65 - )
(detail)
Screening: MMSE, TICS

AD Diagnosis: Brain Imaging, NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G, RE‡ Fitzpatrick, 2009
Gustafson, 2003 H-70 Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 131
(100%)
9.0 y
(detail)
At age 79
25.6 (-)
( - )
(detail)

17

1.23

1.10-1.37

0.0002
*

33

1.15

1.05-1.26

0.003
*
Swedish
(detail)
- (-)
(70 - )
(detail)
Screening: DSM IIIR - dementia

AD Diagnosis: NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
CVD, DBP, SM, SES, THT‡
(detail)
Gustafson, 2003
Gustafson, 2003 H-70 Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 197
(100%)
18 y
(detail)
At age 70
26.1 (-)
( - )
(detail)

17

1.36

1.16-1.59

0.0001
*

35

1.13

1.04-1.24

0.007
*
Swedish
(detail)
- (-)
(70 - )
(detail)
Screening: DSM IIIR - dementia

AD Diagnosis: NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
CVD, DBP, SM, SES, THT‡
(detail)
Gustafson, 2003
Hughs, 2009 Kame Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 1478
(55%)
7.8 y
24.3 (-)
(15 - 47)
(detail)
71 0.60 0.34-1.06 0.08
*
129 0.89 0.49-1.61 0.7
*
Japanese-American
72 (-)
(65 - )
Screening: CASI

AD Diagnosis: CDR, CERAD, DSM IV, NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G‡ Hughs, 2009
Luchsinger, 2007 WHICAP Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 893
(70%)
5.1 y
- (-)
( - )
(detail)
112 0.90 0.85-0.95 < 0.0001
*
181 0.90 0.90-1.00 0.0001
*
Caucasian, Hispanic, African-American (Black)
77 (6)
(65 - )
(detail)
AD Diagnosis: CDR, DSM IV, NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G, APOE4, CHD, DM, HTN, LDL, RE‡
(detail)
Luchsinger, 2007
Xu, 2011 HARMONY Cohort study reporting odds ratios (ORs) 8534
(58%)
-
Mid-life
- (-)
( - )
(detail)

232

1.09

1.04-1.13

< 0.0001
*

464

1.09

1.06-1.12

< 0.0001
*
Swedish
(detail)
43 (-)
( - )
Screening: BDRS, TELE

AD Diagnosis: CERAD, DSM IV, MMSE, NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G‡
(detail)
Xu, 2011
* Derived value.
‡ Covariates: "A" (age), "E" (education), "G" (gender), "APOE4" (APOE e4 genotype), "CVD" (cardiovascular disease), "CHD" (coronary heart disease), "DM" (diabetes mellitus), "DBP" (diastolic blood pressure), "HTN" (hypertension), "LDL" (LDL cholesterol), "RE" (race/ethnicity), "SM" (smoking status), "SES" (socioeconomic status), "THT" (treatment for hypertension)
 
Table 3:   Change in body mass index (BMI) - categorical
Notes The following results examine the association between the change in BMI during a five year period and incident AD, for men and women in different age groups separately. The change in BMI is categoried as <10th percentile, 10-90th percentile (referent) and >90th percentile.  
  Alzheimer Disease Total Dementia  
Paper Cohort Study Type # Subjects
(% Female)
Average Follow-up Time Exposure Distribution
# of Cases Effect Size 95% CI P-value # of Cases Effect Size 95% CI P-value Ethnicity Age at Start of Follow-up:
Mean (SD)
(Range)
Diagnostic Assessment Covariates & Analysis Comment Paper
Atti, 2008 Kungsholmen Project Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 646
(-)
3.0 y
Decreased >10%:         
Decreased 5-10%:         
Stable (change of 5% or less):         
Increased 5-10%:         
Increased >10%:         
(detail)
-
-
-
-
-
1.50
-
1.00
-
-
0.90-2.60
-
Ref.
-
-
0.13
-
Ref.
-
-
*
22
13
43
7
6
Total: 91
2.18
0.62
1.00
1.52
2.37
1.27-3.74
0.33-1.16
Ref.
0.67-3.47
0.97-5.77
0.005
0.14
Ref.
0.32
0.06
*
Swedish
(detail)
81 (4)
(75 - )
Screening: "Modified" 3MSE, DSM-III-R critera for "clinically definite dementia"

AD Diagnosis: Neuropsychological examination
(detail)
A, E, G, ADLI, bsln BMI, MMSE, C, CBVD, CHD, DEP, ID‡
(detail)
Atti, 2008
Beydoun, 2008 BLSA Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 1474
(0%)
23 y
From age 30 to age 35, men
< 10th percentile: 10%
10-90th percentile: 80%
>90th percentile: 10%
(detail)

-
-
-
Total: 116

1.14
1.00
4.58

0.70-1.85
Ref.
1.75-11.95

0.59
Ref.
0.002

 
 
 

 

 

 
Caucasian, Other, African-American (Black)
30 (-)
(30 - 30)
(detail)
AD Diagnosis: NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G, RE, SM, YOB‡ Beydoun, 2008
Beydoun, 2008 BLSA Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 1474
(0%)
23 y
From age 35 to age 40, men
< 10th percentile: 10%
10-90th percentile: 80%
>90th percentile: 10%
(detail)

-
-
-
Total: 116

1.17
1.00
3.82

0.73-1.86
Ref.
1.47-9.83

0.52
Ref.
0.006

 
 
 

 

 

 
Caucasian, Other, African-American (Black)
30 (-)
(30 - 30)
(detail)
AD Diagnosis: NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G, RE, SM, YOB‡ Beydoun, 2008
Beydoun, 2008 BLSA Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 1474
(0%)
23 y
From age 40 to age 45, men
< 10th percentile: 10%
10-90th percentile: 80%
>90th percentile: 10%
(detail)

-
-
-
Total: 116

1.03
1.00
5.04

0.64-1.68
Ref.
1.76-14.42

0.89
Ref.
0.002

 
 
 

 

 

 
Caucasian, Other, African-American (Black)
30 (-)
(30 - 30)
(detail)
AD Diagnosis: NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G, RE, SM, YOB‡ Beydoun, 2008
Beydoun, 2008 BLSA Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 1474
(0%)
23 y
From age 45 to age 50, men
< 10th percentile: 10%
10-90th percentile: 80%
>90th percentile: 10%
(detail)

-
-
-
Total: 116

1.15
1.00
4.68

0.72-1.83
Ref.
1.64-13.37

0.55
Ref.
0.004

 
 
 

 

 

 
Caucasian, Other, African-American (Black)
30 (-)
(30 - 30)
(detail)
AD Diagnosis: NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G, RE, SM, YOB‡ Beydoun, 2008
Beydoun, 2008 BLSA Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 848
(100%)
23 y
From age 30 to age 35, women
< 10th percentile: 10%
10-90th percentile: 80%
>90th percentile: 10%
(detail)

-
-
-
Total: 71

1.91
1.00
1.16

0.99-3.65
Ref.
0.40-3.37

0.05
Ref.
0.78

 
 
 

 

 

 
Caucasian, Other, African-American (Black)
30 (-)
(30 - 30)
(detail)
AD Diagnosis: NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G, RE, SM, YOB‡ Beydoun, 2008
Beydoun, 2008 BLSA Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 848
(100%)
23 y
From age 35 to age 40, women
< 10th percentile: 10%
10-90th percentile: 80%
>90th percentile: 10%
(detail)

-
-
-
Total: 71

1.93
1.00
1.32

1.01-3.72
Ref.
0.50-3.50

0.05
Ref.
0.57

 
 
 

 

 

 
Caucasian, Other, African-American (Black)
30 (-)
(30 - 30)
(detail)
AD Diagnosis: NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G, RE, SM, YOB‡ Beydoun, 2008
Beydoun, 2008 BLSA Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 848
(100%)
23 y
From age 40 to age 45, women
< 10th percentile: 10%
10-90th percentile: 80%
>90th percentile: 10%
(detail)

-
-
-
Total: 71

2.00
1.00
1.35

1.05-3.83
Ref.
0.46-3.91

0.04
Ref.
0.58

 
 
 

 

 

 
Caucasian, Other, African-American (Black)
30 (-)
(30 - 30)
(detail)
AD Diagnosis: NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G, RE, SM, YOB‡ Beydoun, 2008
Beydoun, 2008 BLSA Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 848
(100%)
23 y
From age 45 to age 50, women
< 10th percentile: 10%
10-90th percentile: 80%
>90th percentile: 10%
(detail)

-
-
-
Total: 71

1.67
1.00
1.24

0.87-3.20
Ref.
0.43-3.59

0.12
Ref.
0.69

 
 
 

 

 

 
Caucasian, Other, African-American (Black)
30 (-)
(30 - 30)
(detail)
AD Diagnosis: NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G, RE, SM, YOB‡ Beydoun, 2008
* Derived value.
‡ Covariates: "A" (age), "E" (education), "G" (gender), "ADLI" (activities of daily living impairment), "bsln BMI" (baseline BMI), "MMSE" (baseline MMSE), "C" (cancer), "CBVD" (cerebrovascular disease), "CHD" (coronary heart disease), "DEP" (depression), "ID" (incident disease between baseline and first follow-up), "RE" (race/ethnicity), "SM" (smoking status), "YOB" (year of birth)
 
Table 4:   Rate of change in body mass index (BMI) - continuous, per 1-kg/m2 increase in BMI per year
Notes The following study reports results for the association between the rate of change in BMI over follow-up as a continuous variable and incident AD and TD. The rate of change in BMI was computed from the fixed slope parameters for each participant using random effects modeling.  
  Alzheimer Disease Total Dementia  
Paper Cohort Study Type # Subjects
(% Female)
Average Follow-up Time kg/m2 per yr
Mean (SD)
(Range)
# of Cases Effect Size 95% CI P-value # of Cases Effect Size 95% CI P-value Ethnicity Age at Start of Follow-up:
Mean (SD)
(Range)
Diagnostic Assessment Covariates & Analysis Comment Paper
Buchman, 2005 ROS Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 820
(68%)
5.6 y
27.4 (5)
( - )
(detail)
151 0.73 0.63-0.85 0.0001
*
        Caucasian, Other
75 (-)
( - )
AD Diagnosis: NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G‡ Buchman, 2005
Hughs, 2009 Kame Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 1478
(55%)
7.8 y
24 (-)
(15 - 47)
(detail)
69 0.37 0.11-1.22 0.11
*
129 0.59 0.23-1.54 0.28
*
Japanese-American
72 (-)
(65 - )
(detail)
Screening: CASI

AD Diagnosis: CDR, CERAD, DSM IV, NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G‡ Hughs, 2009
* Derived value.
‡ Covariates: "A" (age), "E" (education), "G" (gender)
 
Table 5:   Change in weight - categorical
Notes The following study reports the association between weight change and incident AD and TD. Weight change is categorized into three groups with the stable weight group used as the referent.  
  Alzheimer Disease Total Dementia  
Paper Cohort Study Type # Subjects
(% Female)
Average Follow-up Time Exposure Distribution
# of Cases Effect Size 95% CI P-value # of Cases Effect Size 95% CI P-value Ethnicity Age at Start of Follow-up:
Mean (SD)
(Range)
Diagnostic Assessment Covariates & Analysis Comment Paper
Luchsinger, 2007 WHICAP Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 709
(70%)
1.3 y
Weight loss: 39%
Stable weight: 35%
Weight gain: 26%
(detail)
35
27
21
Total: 83
1.30
1.00
0.90
0.80-2.20
Ref.
0.50-1.80
0.31
Ref.
0.75
*
63
36
34
Total: 133
1.90
1.00
1.10
1.20-2.90
Ref.
0.70-1.90
< 0.0001
Ref.
0.71
*
Caucasian, Hispanic, African-American (Black)
77 (6)
( - )
(detail)
AD Diagnosis: CDR, DSM IV, NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G, APOE4, RE‡
(detail)
Luchsinger, 2007
* Derived value.
‡ Covariates: "A" (age), "E" (education), "G" (gender), "APOE4" (APOE e4 genotype), "RE" (race/ethnicity)
 
Table 6:   Waist circumference - categorical
Notes The following reports evaluate the association between waist circumference as a categorical variable and incident AD and TD. Some studies have evaluated the association between mid-life waist circumference and incident AD, while others have have evaluated the association in late-life.  
  Alzheimer Disease Total Dementia  
Paper Cohort Study Type # Subjects
(% Female)
Average Follow-up Time Exposure Distribution
# of Cases Effect Size 95% CI P-value # of Cases Effect Size 95% CI P-value Ethnicity Age at Start of Follow-up:
Mean (SD)
(Range)
Diagnostic Assessment Covariates & Analysis Comment Paper
Beydoun, 2008 BLSA Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 1474
(0%)
23 y
At age 30, men
Quintile 1 (60.6-77.4 cm): 20%
Quintile 2 (77.4-81.0 cm): 20%
Quintile 3 (81.0-84.8 cm): 20%
Quintile 4 (84.8-89.9 cm): 20%
Quintile 5 (89.9-126.3 cm): 20%
(detail)

-
-
-
-
-
Total: 116

1.00
0.69
0.55
1.26
0.64

Ref.
0.42-1.14
0.31-0.99
0.72-2.22
0.28-1.46

Ref.
0.15
0.05
0.41
0.29

 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 
Caucasian, Other, African-American (Black)
30 (-)
(30 - 30)
(detail)
AD Diagnosis: NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G, RE, SM, YOB‡
(detail)
Beydoun, 2008
Beydoun, 2008 BLSA Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 1474
(0%)
23 y
At age 50, men
Quintile 1 (69.8-84.1 cm): 20%
Quintile 2 (84.2-88.3 cm): 20%
Quintile 3 (88.3-92.2 cm): 20%
Quintile 4 (92.2-97.7 cm): 20%
Quintile 5 (97.7-138.9 cm): 20%
(detail)

-
-
-
-
-
Total: 116

1.00
0.85
0.79
1.00
0.48

Ref.
0.52-1.40
0.45-1.36
0.57-1.76
0.95-1.07

Ref.
0.53
0.4
0.99
0.24

 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 
Caucasian, Other, African-American (Black)
30 (-)
(30 - 30)
(detail)
AD Diagnosis: NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G, RE, SM, YOB‡
(detail)
Beydoun, 2008
Beydoun, 2008 BLSA Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 848
(100%)
23 y
At age 30, women
Quintile 1 (45.4-61.2 cm): 20%
Quintile 2 (61.3-64.8 cm): 20%
Quintile 3 (64.8-70.3 cm): 20%
Quintile 4 (70.3-77.3 cm): 20%
Quintile 5 (77.4-112.9 cm): 20%
(detail)

-
-
-
-
-
Total: 71

1.00
1.71
1.38
2.23
4.60

Ref.
0.93-3.12
0.64-2.97
0.81-6.18
1.28-16.43

Ref.
0.08
0.41
0.11
0.02

 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 
Caucasian, Other, African-American (Black)
30 (-)
(30 - 30)
(detail)
AD Diagnosis: NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G, RE, SM, YOB‡
(detail)
Beydoun, 2008
Beydoun, 2008 BLSA Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 848
(100%)
23 y
At age 50, women
Quintile 1 (57.9-69.2 cm): 20%
Quintile 2 (69.2-73.7 cm): 20%
Quintile 3 (73.8-80.1 cm): 20%
Quintile 4 (80.1-87.2 cm): 20%
Quintile 5 (87.2-118.8 cm): 20%
(detail)

-
-
-
-
-
Total: 71

1.00
1.15
0.88
2.53
3.04

Ref.
0.63-2.11
0.41-1.92
1.00-6.44
0.87-10.59

Ref.
0.65
0.75
0.05
0.08

 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 
Caucasian, Other, African-American (Black)
30 (-)
(30 - 30)
(detail)
AD Diagnosis: NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G, RE, SM, YOB‡
(detail)
Beydoun, 2008
Forti, 2010 CSBA Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 466
(51%)
3.9 y
At age <75
Low (≤102 cm men, ≤88 cm women): 54%
High (>102 cm men, >88 cm women): 46%
(detail)

10
8
Total: 18

1.00
0.62

Ref.
0.21-1.76

Ref.
0.38
*

19
16
Total: 35

1.00
0.80

Ref.
0.38-1.66

Ref.
0.55
*
Italian
(detail)
69 (3)
( - )
Screening: MMSE

AD Diagnosis: Brain Imaging, DSM IV, NINDS-AIREN, Neuropsychological examination
(detail)
A, E, G, APOE4, CVD, HHC, IS, SL, SH‡
(detail)
Forti, 2010
Forti, 2010 CSBA Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 283
(68%)
3.9 y
At age 75 and older
Low (≤102 cm men, ≤88 cm women): 41%
High (>102 cm men, >88 cm women): 59%
(detail)

18
17
Total: 35

1.00
0.61

Ref.
0.29-1.30

Ref.
0.2
*

33
19
Total: 52

1.00
0.53

Ref.
0.28-0.98

Ref.
0.05
*
Italian
(detail)
80 (4)
( - )
Screening: MMSE

AD Diagnosis: Brain Imaging, DSM IV, NINCDS ADRDA, Neuropsychological examination
(detail)
A, E, G, APOE4, CVD, HHC, IS, SL, SH‡
(detail)
Forti, 2010
Luchsinger, 2007 WHICAP Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 907
(70%)
5.1 y
Quartile 1 (≤83 cm): 25%
Quartile 2 (84-90 cm): 25%
Quartile 3 (91-97 cm): 25%
Quartile 4 (>97 cm): 25%
(detail)
28
34
22
28
Total: 112
1.00
1.10
0.70
1.00
Ref.
0.60-1.80
0.40-1.30
0.60-1.80
Ref.
0.73
0.24
1.0
*
46
49
42
48
Total: 185
1.00
1.00
0.90
1.10
Ref.
0.70-1.50
0.60-1.40
0.70-1.80
Ref.
1.0
0.63
0.69
*
Caucasian, Hispanic, African-American (Black)
77 (6)
(65 - )
AD Diagnosis: Cardiovascular examination, DSM IV, NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G, APOE4, RE‡
(detail)
Luchsinger, 2007
Luchsinger, 2012 WHICAP Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 1456
(67%)
4.0 y
*
Quartile 1: 25%
Quartile 2: 25%
Quartile 3: 25%
Quartile 4: 25%
(detail)
44
34
32
35
Total: 145
1.00
0.50
0.80
0.90
Ref.
0.30-0.90
0.50-1.40
0.50-1.60
Ref.
0.01
0.4
0.72
*
 
 
 
 
      Caucasian, Hispanic, African-American (Black)
76 (6)
(65 - )
(detail)
AD Diagnosis: DSM IV, NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G, APOE4, RE‡ Luchsinger, 2012
Muller, 2007 WHICAP Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 1833
(67%)
4.4 y
(detail)
Low (<102 cm men, <88 cm women):         
High (≥102 cm men, ≥88 cm women):         
(detail)
22
13
Total: 35
1.00
0.60
Ref.
0.40-0.90
Ref.
0.01
*
34
24
Total: 58
1.00
0.70
Ref.
0.50-0.90
Ref.
0.02
*
Caucasian, Hispanic, African-American (Black)
(detail)
76 (6)
(65 - )
AD Diagnosis: CDR, DSM IV, NINCDS ADRDA, Neuropsychological examination
(detail)
A, E, G, APOE4, RE, SM‡
(detail)
Muller, 2007
Raffaitin, 2009 3C Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 7087
(61%)
4.0 y
(detail)
Low (≤102 cm men, ≤88 cm women): 71%
High (>102 cm men, >88 cm women): 29%
(detail)
-
-
Total: 134
1.00
0.64
Ref.
0.43-0.95
Ref.
0.03
-
-
Total: 208
1.00
0.83
Ref.
0.61-1.12
Ref.
0.23
*
French
(detail)
73 (5)
(65 - )
(detail)
Screening: BVRT, IST, MMSE

AD Diagnosis: DSM IV, NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G, CC, HDL, HG, HTN, TG‡
(detail)
Raffaitin, 2009
* Derived value.
‡ Covariates: "A" (age), "E" (education), "G" (gender), "APOE4" (APOE e4 genotype), "CVD" (cardiovascular disease), "CC" (city center), "HDL" (HDL cholesterol), "HG" (hyperglycemia), "HHC" (hyperhomocysteinemia), "HTN" (hypertension), "IS" (inflammation status), "RE" (race/ethnicity), "SL" (sedentary lifestyle), "SM" (smoking status), "SH" (stroke history), "TG" (triglycerides), "YOB" (year of birth)
 
Table 7:   Change in waist circumference - categorical
Notes The following results examine the association between the change in waist circumference during a five year period and incident AD, for men and women in different five year age groups separately. The change in waist circumference is categorized as <10th percentile, 10-90th percentile (referent) and >90th percentile.  
  Alzheimer Disease Total Dementia  
Paper Cohort Study Type # Subjects
(% Female)
Average Follow-up Time Exposure Distribution
# of Cases Effect Size 95% CI P-value # of Cases Effect Size 95% CI P-value Ethnicity Age at Start of Follow-up:
Mean (SD)
(Range)
Diagnostic Assessment Covariates & Analysis Comment Paper
Beydoun, 2008 BLSA Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 1474
(-)
23 y
From age 30 to age 35, men
< 10th percentile: 10%
10-90th percentile: 80%
> 90th percentile: 10%
(detail)

-
-
-
Total: 116

1.55
1.00
1.82

0.89-2.69
Ref.
0.83-4.01

0.12
Ref.
0.13

 
 
 

 

 

 
Caucasian, Other, African-American (Black)
30 (-)
(30 - 30)
(detail)
AD Diagnosis: NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G, RE, SM, YOB‡ Beydoun, 2008
Beydoun, 2008 BLSA Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 1474
(0%)
23 y
From age 35 to age 40, men
< 10th percentile: 10%
10-90th percentile: 80%
> 90th percentile: 10%
(detail)

-
-
-
Total: 116

1.56
1.00
1.83

0.90-2.71
Ref.
0.83-4.01

0.11
Ref.
0.13

 
 
 

 

 

 
Caucasian, Other, African-American (Black)
30 (-)
(30 - 30)
(detail)
AD Diagnosis: NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G, RE, SM, YOB‡ Beydoun, 2008
Beydoun, 2008 BLSA Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 1474
(0%)
23 y
From age 40 to age 45, men
< 10th percentile: 10%
10-90th percentile: 80%
> 90th percentile: 10%
(detail)

-
-
-
Total: 116

1.55
1.00
1.82

0.89-2.69
Ref.
0.83-4.01

0.12
Ref.
0.13

 
 
 

 

 

 
Caucasian, Other, African-American (Black)
30 (-)
(30 - 30)
(detail)
AD Diagnosis: NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G, RE, SM, YOB‡ Beydoun, 2008
Beydoun, 2008 BLSA Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 1474
(0%)
23 y
From age 45 to age 50, men
< 10th percentile: 10%
10-90th percentile: 80%
> 90th percentile: 10%
(detail)

-
-
-
Total: 116

1.60
1.00
1.83

0.92-2.78
Ref.
0.84-4.03

0.09
Ref.
0.13

 
 
 

 

 

 
Caucasian, Other, African-American (Black)
30 (-)
(30 - 30)
(detail)
AD Diagnosis: NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G, RE, SM, YOB‡ Beydoun, 2008
Beydoun, 2008 BLSA Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 848
(100%)
23 y
From age 30 to age 35, women
< 10th percentile: 10%
10-90th percentile: 80%
> 90th percentile: 10%
(detail)

-
-
-
Total: 71

1.37
1.00
0.50

0.41-4.54
Ref.
0.26-0.96

0.61
Ref.
0.04

 
 
 

 

 

 
Caucasian, Other, African-American (Black)
30 (-)
(30 - 30)
(detail)
AD Diagnosis: NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G, RE, SM, YOB‡
(detail)
Beydoun, 2008
Beydoun, 2008 BLSA Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 848
(100%)
23 y
From age 35 to age 40, women
< 10th percentile: 10%
10-90th percentile: 80%
> 90th percentile: 10%
(detail)

-
-
-
Total: 71

1.37
1.00
0.50

0.41-4.54
Ref.
0.26-0.96

0.61
Ref.
0.04

 
 
 

 

 

 
Caucasian, Other, African-American (Black)
30 (-)
(30 - 30)
(detail)
AD Diagnosis: NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G, RE, SM, YOB‡
(detail)
Beydoun, 2008
Beydoun, 2008 BLSA Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 848
(100%)
23 y
From age 40 to age 45, women
< 10th percentile: 10%
10-90th percentile: 80%
> 90th percentile: 10%
(detail)

-
-
-
Total: 71

1.37
1.00
0.49

0.41-4.55
Ref.
0.26-0.93

0.61
Ref.
0.03

 
 
 

 

 

 
Caucasian, Other, African-American (Black)
30 (-)
(30 - 30)
(detail)
AD Diagnosis: NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G, RE, SM, YOB‡
(detail)
Beydoun, 2008
Beydoun, 2008 BLSA Incidence study reporting hazard ratios (HRs) 848
(100%)
23 y
From age 45 to age 50, women
< 10th percentile: 10%
10-90th percentile: 80%
> 90th percentile: 10%
(detail)

-
-
-
Total: 71

1.37
1.00
0.49

0.41-4.55
Ref.
0.26-0.94

0.61
Ref.
0.03

 
 
 

 

 

 
Caucasian, Other, African-American (Black)
30 (-)
(30 - 30)
(detail)
AD Diagnosis: NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G, RE, SM, YOB‡
(detail)
Beydoun, 2008
‡ Covariates: "A" (age), "E" (education), "G" (gender), "RE" (race/ethnicity), "SM" (smoking status), "YOB" (year of birth)
 
Table 8:   Waist-to-hip ratio - categorical
Notes The following study examines the association between waist-to-hip ratio and incident AD.  
  Alzheimer Disease Total Dementia  
Paper Cohort Study Type # Subjects
(% Female)
Average Follow-up Time Exposure Distribution
# of Cases Effect Size 95% CI P-value # of Cases Effect Size 95% CI P-value Ethnicity Age at Start of Follow-up:
Mean (SD)
(Range)
Diagnostic Assessment Covariates & Analysis Comment Paper
Luchsinger, 2012 WHICAP   1431
(67%)
4.0 y
*
Lowest quartile: 25%
Quartile 2: 25%
Quartile 3: 25%
Highest quartile: 25%
(detail)
29
29
28
55
Total: 141
1.00
0.80
1.00
2.50
Ref.
0.50-1.60
0.50-1.90
1.30-4.90
Ref.
0.45
1.0
0.01
*
 
 
 
 
      Caucasian, Hispanic, African-American (Black)
76 (6)
(65 - )
(detail)
AD Diagnosis: NINCDS ADRDA
(detail)
A, E, G, APOE4, RE‡ Luchsinger, 2012
* Derived value.
‡ Covariates: "A" (age), "E" (education), "G" (gender), "APOE4" (APOE e4 genotype), "RE" (race/ethnicity)