Get Newsletter
AlzRisk Paper Detail

Reference: Zandi, 2004
Cohort: Cache County Study
Risk Factor: Nutritional Antioxidants

Average Follow-up Time Detail
Note followup time is for entire cohort, including nonusers of vitamin C and E.

Exposure Detail
Assessed by in-person interview at baseline. Both vitamin C, vitamin E and multivitamins were assessed.
Joint vitamin C and E users were defined as taking individual vitamin C and E supplements or multivitamins containing at least 500 mg of vitamin C and 400 IU of vitamin E. The reference category consisted of those taking no supplemental vitamin C or E and no multivitamins containing vitamins C or E in excess of the aforementioned amounts.

Important note: This table includes results for only two categories of joint vitamin C and E use due to the exclusion of participants who used other combinations of vitamin C, vitamin E, and/or multivitamins. Therefore, the percents shown do not add up to 100%.

Ethnicity Detail
Not reported in this paper. All participants were residents of Cache County, Utah, USA. Ethnicity information based on a description of the cohort.

Age Detail
Age at start of follow-up was derived from a table describing the companion prevalence study, and therefore the true mean age for the incidence study is probably younger.

Screening and Diagnosis Detail
Screening Method:
DQDementia Questionnaire (Silverman 1986)
3MSEModified Mini-Mental State Examination (Teng 1987)

AD Diagnosis:
NINCDS ADRDA National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke/Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association Criteria (McKhann 1984)

"...screening began with an interview that included the modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS) (22,23) or, for those unable to participate, a questionnaire administered to a collateral informant (24). Individuals who did poorly on this screen (eg, scoring <87 on the 3MS at wave I) were examined further by telephone interview with a collateral informant by means of the Dementia Questionnaire (DQ) (25). All those older than 90 years plus a weighted stratified subsample of 19% of all participants were also studied with the DQ, regardless of their initial screening results. Participants with DQ scores of 4 or more at wave I or 3 or more at wave II, as well as all members of the 19% subsample, were then examined at their place of residence. The examination included a medical history, a chronologic history of cognitive symptoms, and a structured neurologic examination, all administered by specially trained nurses, and a 1-hour battery of neuropsychological tests administered by psychometric technicians. A geriatric psychiatrist (J.C.S.B.) and neuropsychologist (J.T.T.) reviewed these data and assigned working diagnoses of dementia (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Revised Third Edition (26) or other cognitive syndromes. Participants with working diagnoses of prevalent or incident dementia were further examined by a geriatric psychiatrist (J.C.S.B.) and were referred for laboratory studies including neuroimaging. These and other participants with apparent cognitive compromise received an identical clinical assessment 18 months later to assess longitudinal course. A consensus panel of experts in neurology, geriatric psychiatry, neuropsychology, and cognitive neuroscience then reviewed all available data and assigned final differential diagnoses. Diagnoses of AD used standard criteria (27) while diagnoses of other dementing illnesses were also made according to current research practice (20,21)."

Covariates & Analysis Detail
Analysis Type:
Logistic regression

Discrete-time survival analysis using logistic regression.

Also adjusted for "the squared deviation of age from the population median" and the interaction between APOE e4 and age.

AD Covariates:
APOE4APOE e4 genotype
HShealth status