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AlzRisk Paper Detail

Reference: Arvanitakis, 2004
Cohort: Religious Orders Study
Risk Factor: Diabetes Mellitus

Exposure Detail
"Diabetes mellitus was considered present if the participant was taking a medication to treat diabetes mellitus, reported a history of diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, or both." The authors classified a participant as diabetic if s/he met these criteria at any time during the study.

Ethnicity Detail
Not reported.
According to a description of the cohort, approximately 89% of the cohort members were white.

Screening and Diagnosis Detail
Screening Method:
CERADConsortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (Morris 1989)

AD Diagnosis:
NINCDS ADRDA National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke/Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association Criteria (McKhann 1984)

"At baseline, each participant underwent a uniform structured clinical evaluation that followed the procedures recommended by the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (16). The evaluation included a medical history, a neurologic examination, neuropsychological performance testing, and a review of a brain scan when available. All prescription and over-the-counter medication names and dosages were recorded after direct inspection of medication containers. A board-certified neuropsychologist (R.S.W.) reviewed the cognitive performance test results. Participants were evaluated in person by a neurologist (Z.A. or D.A.B.) or a geriatrician with expertise in the evaluation of older persons with and without dementia. Based on this evaluation, persons were classified with respect to AD, stroke, and other common conditions with the potential to impact cognitive function. Details of the evaluations have been previously described (15,17). The diagnosis of dementia and AD followed the recommendations of the joint working group of the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Association (18) The diagnosis of clinical stroke was based on review of the medical history, neurologic examination results, and neuroimaging data (brain computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging scans) when available, as previously described (15). Follow-up evaluations were identical in all essential details to the baseline evaluation, and were performed annually by examiners blinded to previously collected data."

Covariates & Analysis Detail
Analysis Type:
Cox proportional hazards regression

AD Covariates:
SHstroke history