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AlzRisk Paper Detail

Reference: Luchsinger, 2001
Cohort: Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project
Risk Factor: Diabetes Mellitus

Average Follow-up Time Detail
This study reports on diabetes in relation to incident dementia between 1992 and 1997 (average follow-up time, 4.3 years) in the WHICAP cohort. (This is cohort is distinct from the second WHICAP cohort enrolled and studied in the work by Cheng et al, 2011.)

Exposure Detail
At baseline, "the presence of diabetes was based on reported use of insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents or a clinical history of diabetes."

Ethnicity Detail
We computed the percent caucasian by subtracting the reported percents Hispanic and African-American from 100%.

Screening and Diagnosis Detail
AD Diagnosis:
CDR Clinical Dementia Rating (Berg 1988)
NINCDS ADRDA National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke/Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association Criteria (McKhann 1984)

"The diagnosis of dementia and assignment of its specific cause was made by a group of neurologists, psychiatrists, and neuropsychologists by consensus, on the basis of information gathered at the initial visit and follow-up visits. Dementia diagnosis was based on the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (30), and it required evidence of cognitive deficits on the neuropsychological test battery as well as evidence of impairment in social or occupational functioning (Clinical Dementia Rating >0.5) (31). Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease was based on the criteria of the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke–Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCDS-ADRDA) (32). Diagnosis of dementia associated with stroke (hereafter called stroke-associated dementia) was made in all subjects with dementia in whom stroke was judged to be the main cause of the dementia based on evidence of the focal effects of the stroke, its temporal relation with dementia, or both. Brain imaging was available in 85 percent of cases of stroke; in the remainder, World Health Organization criteria were used to define stroke (33). Subjects without dementia but with a history of stroke at the baseline examination were included in the analyses."

Covariates & Analysis Detail
Analysis Type:
Cox proportional hazards regression

AD Covariates:
APOE4APOE e4 genotype

The authors adjusted for age by using age at onset as the time-to-event variable.