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Average Follow-up Time Detail
Baseline interviews were conducted in 1999 and 2000. The initial cycle of follow-up was completed from 2001-2002 and the second cycle of follow-up was completed from 2003-2004.
"Blood pressure was measured twice in a sitting position using a digital electronic tensiometer, and the average was used in the statistical analyses."
Hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure >130 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure >85 mm Hg or the use of antihypertensive medication.
The vast majority (97%) of participants were French speaking and 88% were born in France.
Entry criteria required a minimum age of 65.
Screening and Diagnosis Detail
Mini-Mental State Examination (Folstein 1975)
National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke/Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association Criteria (McKhann 1984)
Total Dementia Definition:
"A three-step procedure was used to diagnose cases of dementia
. First, screening was based on a thorough neuropsychological examination by trained psychologists. This examination included a battery of cognitive tests covering memory, attention, language, and visuo-spatial abilities. Data on activities of daily living, severity of cognitive disorders, and, where possible, magnetic resonance images or computed tomography scans were collected
. Second, the participants who were suspected of having dementia on the basis of their neuropsychological performance (in particular the Mini Mental Status Examination, the Benton Visual Retention Test, and the Isaac's Set Test administered uniformly in all three study centers at each follow-up
) were examined by a neurologist in the three study centers
. Finally, all suspected dementia cases were analyzed by a common independent committee of neurologists according to the criteria of the DSM-IV
. This committee of neurologists reviewed by teleconference all potential cases of dementia of the three study centers to obtain a consensus on its diagnosis and etiology based on all existing information. With regard to the different subtypes of dementia, we considered the two most frequent causes of dementia as determined by committee (Alzheimer's disease according to National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria
and vascular dementia based on history of vascular disease, Hachinski score
, and magnetic resonance imaging whenever possible)."
Covariates & Analysis Detail
Cox proportional hazards regression
The investigators fit "...proportional hazards models with delayed entry and age as time scale